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APA 7th Edition: In-text Citations

Using APA 7th edition citation style

In-Text Citations

The APA uses the author-date citation system in which a brief in-text citation directs the reader to the full reference list entry (Publication Manual, 2019, p. 257).

For good examples of in-text citations, see the sample papers (written by APA staff members) in  the APA Style Center.


A typlcal in-text citation contains the first element of the entry in the works-cited list, the date, and a page number.

  • if a quotation is so long that it is set off from the text (usually more than 4 lines of prose, 3 lines of poetry), type a space after the quotation's concluding punctuation mark and insert the parenthetical citation
  • if there are two coauthors include both names, connected by an &
  • if there are three or more coauthors, use the first author's name followed by et al.
  • if it is a corporate author, abbreviate terms that are commonly abbreviated [see Publication Manual 7th ed., section 8.21] and include all the names of administrative units
  • if a fact or paraphrased idea comes from more than one source, include all the sources in the citation - e.g. (Baron 194; Jacobs 55)
  • if a work is available in multiple editions, it helps your reader if you provide division numbers in addition to page numbers

Some sources do not provide a page number for you to include in the citation

  • if the parts are distinguished in some way, use the appropriate label - e.g. para. for numbered paragraphs; section. for sections; ch.. for chapters
    • if the author's name begins the citation, place a comma after the name and date - e.g. (Chan, 2013, para. 41)
  • when there is no page number or other part number, nothing is given in the citation other than the name/title and date - e.g. (Hollmichel, 2020)
  • for works in time-based media, cite the relevant time or time range (hours, minutes, seconds) with colons between the numbers


Work Cited In-Text

Baron, N. S. (2013, January). Redefining reading: The impact of digital communication media." PMLA, 128(1), 193-200.

According to Naomi Baron (2013), reading is "just half of literacy. The other half is writing" (p.194).


Reading is "just half of literacy. The other half is writing" (Baron, 2013, p. 194).

Baron, D. (2009, September) No students left behind: Why reports on the literacy crisis from the Spellings Commission, the ACT, and the ETS just don't read America's literacy right." College Composition and Communication, 61(1), pp. W424-W435.

Baron, N. S. "Redefining reading: The impact of digital communication media." PMLA,128(1), pp. 193-200.

We ignore at our peril "the most basic nature of literacy: its dependence on context" (Baron, 2009, p. W433).


Reading is "just half of literacy. The other half is writing" (Baron, 2013, p. 194).

Dorris, M., & Erdrich, L. (1999). The Crown of Columbus. HaperCollins Publishers.

Hsu, C. -T., Jacobs, A. M., Altman, U. & Conrad, M. (2015). The magical activation of left amygdala when reading Harry Potter: An fMRI Study on how descriptions of supra-natural events entertain and enchant." PLoS ONE, 10(2), 1-15.

The complexity of ethnic identity is proclaimed by a fictional character: "I belong to the lost tribe of mixed bloods, that hodgepodge amalgam of hue and cry that defies easy placement” (Dorris & Edrich, 1999, p. 166).


One study reported that readers of the Harry Potter novels found passages dealing with supra-natural events more surprising and enjoyable than control passages (Hsu et al., 2015, pp. 8-9).

White House, Office of Faith-Based and Community Initiatives. Innovations in Compassion: The Faith-Based and Community Initiative: A Final Report to the Armies of Compassion .President of the United States, 2008.

United States, Department of Labor. Child Care: A Workforce Issue. Government Printing Office, 1988.

That year nearly a quarter of the service providers under President Bush's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief were faith-based (White House Office of Faith-Based and Community Initiatives,  p. 6).


In 1988 a federal report observed that the "current high level of attention to child care is directly attributable to the new workforce trends" (United States, Dept. of Labor, p. 147).

.Baron, N. S. (2013, January). Redefining reading: The impact of digital communication media." PMLA, 128(1), 193-200.

Baron, N. S. (2008). Always On: Language in an Online and Mobile World. Oxford University Press.

Reading at Risk: A Survey of Literary Reading in America. National Endowment for the Arts, June 2004. Research Division Report 46.

Reading is "just half of literacy. The other half is writing" (Baron, 2013, p. 194).


It is alarming to note that "the steepest decline in literary reading is in the youngest age groups" (Reading, p. xi).

Stowe, B. (2012, January 28). Buffy the vampire slayer: Unaired pilot 1996 [Video]. YouTube.

Buffy's promise that "there's not going to be any incidents like at my old school" is obviously not one on which she can follow through (Stowe, 2012, 00:03:16-17).

Austen, Jane. (2001). Mansfield Park. Modern Library. (Original work published 1814)

Miller, Arthur. (1949). Death of a Salesman: Certain Private Conversations in Two Acts and a Requiem. Viking Press.

Austen (1814/2001) announces in the final chapter of Mansfield Park her intention to avoid dwelling on the professions of love made by the main characters (p. 398; vol. 3, ch. 17).


Willy Loman admits to his wife, "I have such thoughts, I have such strange thoughts" (Miller, 1949, p. 14).