Skip to Main Content
Ask A Librarian HoursLibrary CatalogArticle Databases RESEARCH SERVICESHELPINFORMATION FOR...

IF I APPLY - a source evaluation tool: Home

This guide serves as a landing page for all things IF I APPLY. You will find files, lesson plans, publications, citations, praise and more. IF I APPLY © 2016 by Eryn Roles, Sabrina Thomas, Kathleen Phillips is licensed under CC BY-NC 4.0


Confirmation Bias


"the tendency to search for, interpret, favor, and recall information in a way that confirms one's beliefs or hypotheses, while giving disproportionately less consideration to alternative possibilities. Research suggests that this effect is stronger for emotionally charged debates or deeply entrenched convictions. When the evidence is ambiguous, people also tend to take that as supporting their existing position."

Confirmation Bias. (2019). In AllSides (Ed.), AllSides Red Blue Dictionary. AllSides LLC. Retrieved September 5, 2023, from

Published citations

Phillips, K., Roles, E., & Thomas, S. IF I APPLY: a New Recipe for Critical Source Evaluation. The Critical Thinking about Sources Cookbook. Association of College and Research Libraries, Chicago, IL. 2020.

Phillips, K., Roles, E., & Thomas, S. (2019). Navigating the Information Ecosystem: Getting Personal with Source Evaluation, IF I APPLY. In B. Steiz (Ed.) LOEX Annual Conference 2019. Minneapolis, MN.

Burkholder, J. M., & Phillips, K. 2022. Breaking down bias: A practical framework for the systematic evaluation of source bias. Journal of Information Literacy, 16(2), pp. 53–68. 

Meet the creators

Eryn Roles, Research and Instruction Librarian,

College of Liberal Arts, Fine Arts, and Honors College Library Partner

Marshall University,


Kathleen Phillips, Nursing & Allied Health Liaison Librarian,

Nursing, Health Policy & Administration,

Consortium to Combat Substance Abuse,

Penn State University,, @724PhillipsK

Dr. Sabrina Thomas, Director of HPU Library and Learning Commons

Hawai'i Pacific University