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GEO 100: Citing Sources

  Citation Assistance

To view the Marshall Libraries citation guide, visit https://www.marshall.edu/library/services/library-help/

Additional resources that could be helpful with citations:


 

iassistdata.org

International Association for Social Science
Information Services & Technology

QUICK GUIDE TO

DATA CITATION

identify * retrieve * attribute

CITING DATA

Citing datasets used in published research is just as important as citing journal articles, books, and other sources that contributed to the research.

By citing your use of a dataset, you are supporting the reproducibility of your research and attributing credit to those who provided the data-including datasets that you have created yourself. Citations also allow for tracking reuse and measuring impact.

Instructions for citation styles do not consistently provide examples for dataset citations. This guide will help you determine the citation elements to include. Refer to your author guidelines or style guide to properly arrange and format these citation elements. Many data providers also recommend their preferred citation or supply an example.

Be sure to provide enough information in your citation so that the reader can identify, retrieve, and access the same unique dataset you have used.

ELEMENTS OF DATA CITATION

  • Author: Name(s) of each individual or organizational entity responsible for the creation of the dataset.

  • Date of Publication: Year the dataset was published or disseminated.

  • Title: Complete title of the dataset, including the edition or version number, if applicable.

  • Publisher and/or Distributor: Organizational entity that makes the dataset available by archiving, producing, publishing, and/or distributing the dataset.

  • Electronic Location or Identifier: Web address or unique, persistent, global identifier used to locate the dataset (such as a DOI). Append the date retrieved if the title and locator are not specific to the exact instance of the data you used.

These are the minimum elements required for dataset identification and retrieval. Fewer or additional elements may be requested by author guidelines or style manuals. Be sure to include as many elements as needed to precisely identify the dataset you have used.

FOR EXAMPLE

Arrange these elements following the order and punctuation specified by your style guide. If examples for datasets are not provided, the format for books is generally considered a generic format that can be modified for other source types.

APA (6th edition)

Smith, T.W., Marsden, P.V., & Hout, M. (2011). General social survey, 1972-2010 cumulative file (ICPSR31521-v1) [data file and codebook]. Chicago, IL: National Opinion Research Center [producer]. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor]. doi: 10.3886/ICPSR31521.v1

MLA (7th edition)

Smith, Tom W., Peter V. Marsden, and Michael Hout. General Social Survey, 1972-2010 Cumulative File. ICPSR31521-v1. Chicago, IL: National Opinion Research Center [producer]. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2011. Web. 23 Jan 2012. doi:10.3886/ICPSR31521.v1

Chicago (16th edition) (author-date)

Smith, Tom W., Peter V. Marsden, and Michael Hout. 2011. General Social Survey, 1972-2010 Cumulative File. ICPSR31521-v1. Chicago, IL: National Opinion Research Center. Distributed by Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research. doi:10.3886/ICPSR31521.v1

ABOUT IASSIST

IASSIST is an international organization of professionals working with information technology and data services to support research and teaching in the social sciences.

Its 300 members work in a variety of settings, including data archives, statistical agencies, research centers, libraries, academic institutions, government departments, and non-profit organizations.

If you have questions about citing datasets, consider consulting with your local librarian or writing lab.

International Association for Social Science
Information Services & Technology

Special Interest Group on Data Citation, 2012

This work by IASSIST SIGDC is
licensed under a Creative Commons
Attribution 3.0 United Sates.

Above: University of Michigan's IASSIST Project: https://www.icpsr.umich.edu/files/ICPSR/enewsletters/iassist.html

Citing sources in your paper

How to Add Quotations to Your Paper

According to the Purdue Owl's Writing Lab, below are a few ways to incorporate someone else's words into your paper.


 

APA: Short Quotations

If you are directly quoting from a work, you will need to include the author, year of publication, and page number for the reference (preceded by "p."). Introduce the quotation with a signal phrase that includes the author's last name followed by the date of publication in parentheses.

  • According to Jones (1998), "Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time" (p. 199).
  • Jones (1998) found "students often had difficulty using APA style" (p. 199); what implications does this have for teachers?

 

APA Long Quotations

Place direct quotations that are 40 words or longer in a free-standing block of typewritten lines and omit quotation marks. Start the quotation on a new line, indented 1/2 inch from the left margin, i.e., in the same place you would begin a new paragraph. Type the entire quotation on the new margin, and indent the first line of any subsequent paragraph within the quotation 1/2 inch from the new margin. Maintain double-spacing throughout. The parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark.

  • Jones's (1998) study found the following:

Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time citing sources. This difficulty could be attributed to the fact that many students failed to purchase a style manual or to ask their teacher for help. (p. 199)

The above APA information was taken directly from the Purdue Owl Writing Lab: APA Style Formatting and Style Guide: https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/apa_style/apa_overview_and_workshop.html 


 

MLA: Short Quotations

To indicate short quotations (four typed lines or fewer of prose or three lines of verse) in your text, enclose the quotation within double quotation marks. Provide the author and specific page citation (in the case of verse, provide line numbers) in the text, and include a complete reference on the Works Cited page. Punctuation marks such as periods, commas, and semicolons should appear after the parenthetical citation. Question marks and exclamation points should appear within the quotation marks if they are a part of the quoted passage but after the parenthetical citation if they are a part of your text.

For example, when quoting short passages of prose, use the following examples:

  • According to some, dreams express "profound aspects of personality" (Foulkes 184), though others disagree.
  • According to Foulkes's study, dreams may express "profound aspects of personality" (184).
  • Is it possible that dreams may express "profound aspects of personality" (Foulkes 184)?

When short (fewer than three lines of verse) quotations from poetry, mark breaks in short quotations of verse with a slash, ( / ), at the end of each line of verse (a space should precede and follow the slash). If a stanza break occurs during the quotation, use a double slash ( // ).

  • Cullen concludes, "Of all the things that happened there / That's all I remember" (11-12).

 

MLA: Long Quotations

For quotations that are more than four lines of prose or three lines of verse, place quotations in a free-standing block of text and omit quotation marks. Start the quotation on a new line, with the entire quote indented ½ inch from the left margin; maintain double-spacing. Your parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark. When quoting verse, maintain original line breaks. (You should maintain double-spacing throughout your essay.)

For example, when citing more than four lines of prose, use the following examples:

  • Nelly Dean treats Heathcliff poorly and dehumanizes him throughout her narration:

They entirely refused to have it in bed with them, or even in their room, and I had no more sense, so, I put it on the landing of the stairs, hoping it would be gone on the morrow. By chance, or else attracted by hearing his voice, it crept to Mr. Earnshaw's door, and there he found it on quitting his chamber. Inquiries were made as to how it got there; I was obliged to confess, and in recompense for my cowardice and inhumanity was sent out of the house. (Bronte 78)

The above APA information was taken directly from the Purdue Owl Writing Lab: MLA Style Formatting and Style Guide:  https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/mla_style/mla_formatting_and_style_guide/mla_formatting_quotations.html