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FYS 100 - York: Citing Sources

 

 Citing Sources

Citing sources can be a confusing and difficult process, so this page provides tips and resources to help you keep track of your citations. 

 

MLA Quick Guide

MU Libraries MLA Citation Quick Guide (8th ed.) (PDF)

Click on the above link to go directly to the most common MLA citation examples. 

APA Quick Guide

MU Libraries APA Citation Quick Guide (7th ed.) (PDF)

Click on the above link to go directly to the most common APA citation examples. 

More Citation Help

Marshall Libraries Citation Guide

Click on the above link to visit the MU Libraries Citation Guide, which includes various citation styles and non-Marshall resources. 

Citation Examples

How to Add Quotations to Your Paper

According to the Purdue Owl's Writing Lab, below are a few ways to incorporate someone else's words into your paper.


 

APA: Short Quotations

If you are directly quoting from a work, you will need to include the author, year of publication, and page number for the reference (preceded by "p."). Introduce the quotation with a signal phrase that includes the author's last name followed by the date of publication in parentheses.

  • According to Jones (1998), "Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time" (p. 199).
  • Jones (1998) found "students often had difficulty using APA style" (p. 199); what implications does this have for teachers?

 

APA Long Quotations

Place direct quotations that are 40 words or longer in a free-standing block of typewritten lines and omit quotation marks. Start the quotation on a new line, indented 1/2 inch from the left margin, i.e., in the same place you would begin a new paragraph. Type the entire quotation on the new margin, and indent the first line of any subsequent paragraph within the quotation 1/2 inch from the new margin. Maintain double-spacing throughout. The parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark.

  • Jones's (1998) study found the following:

Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time citing sources. This difficulty could be attributed to the fact that many students failed to purchase a style manual or to ask their teacher for help. (p. 199)

The above APA information was taken directly from the Purdue Owl Writing Lab: APA Style Formatting and Style Guide: https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/apa_style/apa_overview_and_workshop.html 


 

MLA: Short Quotations

To indicate short quotations (four typed lines or fewer of prose or three lines of verse) in your text, enclose the quotation within double quotation marks. Provide the author and specific page citation (in the case of verse, provide line numbers) in the text, and include a complete reference on the Works Cited page. Punctuation marks such as periods, commas, and semicolons should appear after the parenthetical citation. Question marks and exclamation points should appear within the quotation marks if they are a part of the quoted passage but after the parenthetical citation if they are a part of your text.

For example, when quoting short passages of prose, use the following examples:

  • According to some, dreams express "profound aspects of personality" (Foulkes 184), though others disagree.
  • According to Foulkes's study, dreams may express "profound aspects of personality" (184).
  • Is it possible that dreams may express "profound aspects of personality" (Foulkes 184)?

When short (fewer than three lines of verse) quotations from poetry, mark breaks in short quotations of verse with a slash, ( / ), at the end of each line of verse (a space should precede and follow the slash). If a stanza break occurs during the quotation, use a double slash ( // ).

  • Cullen concludes, "Of all the things that happened there / That's all I remember" (11-12).

 

MLA: Long Quotations

For quotations that are more than four lines of prose or three lines of verse, place quotations in a free-standing block of text and omit quotation marks. Start the quotation on a new line, with the entire quote indented ½ inch from the left margin; maintain double-spacing. Your parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark. When quoting verse, maintain original line breaks. (You should maintain double-spacing throughout your essay.)

For example, when citing more than four lines of prose, use the following examples:

  • Nelly Dean treats Heathcliff poorly and dehumanizes him throughout her narration:

They entirely refused to have it in bed with them, or even in their room, and I had no more sense, so, I put it on the landing of the stairs, hoping it would be gone on the morrow. By chance, or else attracted by hearing his voice, it crept to Mr. Earnshaw's door, and there he found it on quitting his chamber. Inquiries were made as to how it got there; I was obliged to confess, and in recompense for my cowardice and inhumanity was sent out of the house. (Bronte 78)

The above APA information was taken directly from the Purdue Owl Writing Lab: MLA Style Formatting and Style Guide:  https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/mla_style/mla_formatting_and_style_guide/mla_formatting_quotations.html